, In particular, the emotional part of the collective consciousness overrides our egoism: as we are emotionally bound to culture, we act socially because we recognize it is the responsible, moral way to act. He refined the positivism originally set forth by Auguste Comte, promoting what could be considered as a form of epistemological realism, as well as the use of the hypothetico-deductive model in social science.  In the end, even the most logical and rational pursuit of science can trace its origins to religion. , Thus there is something eternal in religion which is destined to survive all the particular symbols in which religious thought has successively enveloped itself. Society, collective consciousness, and culture. The authority which the moral conscience enjoys must not be excessive; otherwise, no-one would dare to criticize it, and it would too easily congeal into an immutable form.  Durkheim also insisted that society was more than the sum of its parts.[iii]. Fame and the effect of the Dreyfus affair, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Emile-Durkheim, Jewish Virtual Library - Biography of Émile Durkheim, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Biography of Émile Durkheim, Émile Durkheim - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Lukes attributes Searle's miscomprehension of Durkheim's work to the fact that Searle, quite simply, never read Durkheim.  In this way Durkheim attempted to bridge the divide between seeing categories as constructed out of human experience and as logically prior to that experience. :54, However, in order to accomplish its aims, morality must be legitimate in the eyes of those to whom it speaks. He then moved to the University of Paris, where he wrote some of his most important works and influenced a generation of scholars.  Durkheim would be one of the first scholars to consider the question of culture so intensely. , In another example of evolution of culture, Durkheim pointed to fashion, although in this case he noted a more cyclical phenomenon. (1991). He is widely regarded as the founder of the French school of sociology. :1 In fact, Durkheim led a completely secular life, whereby much of his work would be dedicated to demonstrating that religious phenomena stemmed from social rather than divine factors. , In 1895, he published The Rules of Sociological Method, a manifesto stating what sociology is and how it ought to be done, and founded the first European department of sociology at the University of Bordeaux. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Durkheim began by distinguishing two types of "solidarities," mechanical and organic. [v], Regarding the society itself, like social institutions in general, Durkheim saw it as a set of social facts. His father, grandfather, and great-grandfather had all been rabbis, and it was assumed that he would follow their lead when they enrolled him in a rabbinical school. Durkheim was one of the pioneers of the use of quantitative methods in criminology, which he used in his study of suicide. As such, these representations have the particular, and somewhat contradictory, aspect that they exist externally to the individual—since they are created and controlled not by the individual but by society as a whole—yet, simultaneously within each individual of the society, by virtue of that individual's participation within society. In 1885–86 he took a year’s leave of absence to pursue research in Germany, where he was impressed by Wilhelm Wundt, a pioneering experimental psychologist. However, the onset of the war, and the inevitable nationalist propaganda that followed, made it difficult to sustain this already nuanced position. This discursive approach to language and society would be developed by later French philosophers, such as Michel Foucault. A social fact must always be studied according to its relation with other social facts, never according to the individual who studies it. Material prosperity set free greed and passions that threatened the equilibrium of society.  This consciousness produces the society and holds it together, while, at the same time, individuals produce collective consciousness through their interactions.  Such people are unhappy, and their desire to change the system can destabilize the society.  One of the ways mechanical and organic societies differ is the function of law: in mechanical society the law is focused on its punitive aspect, and aims to reinforce the cohesion of the community, often by making the punishment public and extreme; whereas in the organic society the law focuses on repairing the damage done and is more focused on individuals than the community. ":95, A fundamental aim of sociology is to discover structural "social facts".  Progress from mechanical to organic solidarity is based first on population growth and increasing population density, second on increasing "morality density" (development of more complex social interactions) and thirdly, on the increasing specialization in workplace. " His analysis of morality is strongly marked by Immanuel Kant and his notion of duty.  Our understanding of the world is shaped by social facts; for example the notion of time is defined by being measured through a calendar, which in turn was created to allow us to keep track of our social gatherings and rituals; those in turn on their most basic level originated from religion. Emile Durkheim pioneered the comparative method in sociology. As his father, grandfather, and great-grandfather had all been rabbis,:1 young Durkheim began his education in a rabbinical school.
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